How a PV System Works

PV Systems are like any other electrical power generating systems, just the equipment used is different than that used for conventional electromechanical generating systems. However, the principles of operation and interfacing with other electrical systems remain the same, and are guided by a well-established body of electrical codes and standards.

Although a PV array produces power when exposed to sunlight, a number of other components are required to properly conduct, control, convert, distribute, and store the energy produced by the array.

Components of a PV System

  1. Solar Panels – Converts Sunlight to Electricity
  2. Batteries – Stores Electricity
  3. Charge Controller – Manages the flow of electricity between the solar panel and the battery
  4. Inverter – Converts DC Power from the Solar Panel and Batteries to AC Power. Inverters are not always used.
  5. Load – electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc.
  6. Wires – Connect the various components together
  7. Auxiliary energy sources – is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources.

In addition, an assortment of balance of system (BOS) hardware, including wiring, over-current, surge protection and disconnect devices, and other power processing equipment. The figure show a basic diagram of a photo-voltaic system and the relationship of individual components.